Effects of dried distillers grains with solubles on carcass fat quality of finishing pigs

J. M. Benz,* S. K. Linneen,* M. D. Tokach,* S. S. Dritz,† J. L. Nelssen,* J. M. DeRouchey,* R. D. Goodband,* R. C. Sulabo,* and K. J. Prusa‡

*Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, College of Agriculture, and †Food Animal Health and Management Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506; and ‡Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames 50011

A total of 1,112 pigs (initial BW of 49.8 kg) were used in a 78-d study to evaluate the effects of 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and sex on carcass fat quality of finishing pigs. All diets contained 6% choice white grease and were fed in 4 finishing phases (50 to 59, 59 to 82, 82 to 105, and 105 to 123 kg, respectively). The experiment was conducted in a commercial research finishing barn in southwestern Minnesota. There were 9 replicates of each dietary treatment, with 25 to 28 pigs per pen, and barrows and gilts were distributed equally in each pen. On d 57, the 3 heaviest barrows from each pen were visually selected, removed, and marketed, and a total of 6 pigs per treatment were selected randomly for fatty acid analysis. On d 78, the remaining pigs from each pen were individually tattooed and shipped to a pork processing plant. Jowl fat, backfat, and belly fat samples were collected from 1 barrow and 1 gilt chosen randomly from each pen and analyzed for fatty acid composition. Iodine value (IV) was calculated for diets and fat samples. Fat quality data were analyzed as a split plot with DDGS treatment as the whole plot and sex as the subplot. Concentrations of C18:2n-6, PUFA, and IV increased (linear, P = 0.02) with increasing DDGS in backfat, jowl fat, and belly fat in pigs marketed on d 57 and 78. In contrast, C18:1 cis- 9 and MUFA concentrations decreased linearly (P = 0.05) in all 3 fat depots with increasing DDGS. For every 10% DDGS included in the diet, IV of backfat, jowl fat, and belly fat increased by 2.3, 1.6, and 2.2 g/100 g, respectively. In pigs slaughtered on d 78, there were no (P = 0.10) sex × dietary DDGS interactions observed. Compared with barrows, gilts had greater (P < 0.05) C18:2n-6, PUFA, and PUFA:SFA ratio and lesser (P < 0.03) C14:0 concentrations in backfat and belly fat but not jowl fat. Gilts had greater (P = 0.03) belly fat IV than barrows, but there were no (P > 0.25) differences between gilts and barrows in backfat and jowl fat IV. In summary, feeding increasing amounts of DDGS linearly increased the IV of backfat, jowl fat, and belly fat in pigs. Although jowl fat was less responsive to increased DDGS than backfat and belly fat, pigs fed diets with 20% DDGS and 6% choice white grease exceeded the maximum jowl IV of 73 g/100 g set by some packing plants.

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